Lotech Solution's Glossary

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Access Data Objects (.NET version) – the suite of data access technologies included in the .NET Framework class libraries.
The form of data comprising a full range of possible variable values, represented in a signal as a changing value over time. Compare with digital.
American National Standards Institute – a voluntary, non-profit organization of U.S. business and industry groups formed in 1918 for the development of trade and communication standards. ANSI is the American representative of the International Standards Organization and has developed recommendations for the use of programming languages including FORTRAN, C, and COBOL.
Application Programming Interface – the interface formed by a set of programming language constructs or statements which can be coded in an application program to invoke the specific functions and services provided by an underlying operating system or service program.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange - a coding scheme using 7 or 8 bits that assigns numeric values to up to 256 characters, including letters, numerals, punctuation marks, control characters, and other symbols. ASCII was developed in 1968 to standardize data transmission among disparate hardware and software systems.
Active Server Pages (.NET version) – the framework for building server-based Web applications. An evolution of ASP into the managed code space.
A collection of functionality classes, built, versioned, and deployed as a single implementation unit (one or multiple files). An assembly is the primary building block of a .NET application. All managed types and resources are marked either as accessible only within their implementation unit or as exported for use by code outside that unit. In the runtime, the assembly establishes the name scope for resolving requests and the visibility boundaries are enforced. The runtime can determine and locate the assembly for any running object because every type is loaded in the context of an assembly. See AssemblyManifest. Compare with namespace.
assembly manifest
An integral part of every assembly that renders the assembly self-describing. The manifest metadata establishes the assembly identity, specifies the files that make up the assembly implementation, specifies the types and resources that make up the assembly, itemizes the compile-time dependencies on other assemblies, and specifies the set of permissions required for the assembly to run properly. This information is used at runtime to resolve references, enforce version binding policy, and validate the integrity of loaded assemblies. The self-describing nature of assemblies also helps makes zero-impact install and XCOPY deployment feasible.
asynchronous operation
1. A process in a multitasking system whose execution can proceed independently, or in the background. Other processes may be started before the asynchronous process has finished.
2. A data transmission method that allows characters to be sent at irregular intervals over a line by preceding each character with a start bit and following it with a stop bit.
Compare with synchronous operation.
A descriptive declaration that annotates programming elements such as types, fields, methods, and properties. Attributes are saved with the metadata of a .NET Framework file and can be used to describe code to the runtime or to affect application behaviour at run time.
audio frequency
The frequency at which a sound wave is audible to the human ear in the range from 150 to 20,000 cycles per second (HertzHz).
Audio Video the general name to describe equipment and devices which support audio and/or video capabilities. Often used to describe cables and connections between compatible equipment for the transmission of video and audio signals.

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1. The difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that an analogue communications system can pass. For example, a normal telephone line accommodates a bandwidth of 3,000 Hz, which is the difference between the lowest (300 Hz) and highest (3,300 Hz) audio frequency range it carries.
2. The data transfer capacity of a digital communications system.
Binary Input Output system a
Binary digIT a single basic unit of binary data represented as being either on or off in a digital signal or stored on digital media.
build environment
The state of the development workstation and the directory structure when an application build begins. Compare with runtime.

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A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access. A memory cache stores the contents of frequently accessed RAM locations and the addresses where this data is stored. When the processor references an address in memory, the cache checks to see whether it holds that address. If it does hold the address, the data is returned to the processor; if it does not hold the address, a regular memory access occurs. A cache is useful when RAM accesses are slow compared with the microprocessor speed, because cache memory is always faster than main RAM memory.
Compact Disc – the lightweight, removable and portable 12cm standard optical disc media for storing digital data. (Note the spelling using "c" in 'disc', as apposed to 'disk' used to describe magnetic media.) CDs were designed to replace records and tapes as audio storage media, and require the use of special hardware equipment known as CD players. More recently, re-recordable CD media and CD recorder devices were made available allowing for custom data storage.
1. In object-oriented programming, a member of a class (group) that uses the services of another class to which it is not related.
2. A process, such as an application or task, that requests a service provided by another application. For example, a word processor that calls on a sort routine built into another application. The client process uses the requested service without having to know any working details about the other application or the service itself.
3. On a local area network or the Internet, a computer that accesses shared network resources provided by another computer, called a server. The client primarily presents data to the user. As a rule, the client (or front end) does not perform any calculations; instead, the client sends requests for data to a server, and then formats and displays the results.
Common Language Specification – a defined set of .NET Framework language features, designed to allow objects to fully interact with other objects regardless of the language they were implemented in, by exposing to callers only those features that are common to all the languages they must interoperate with.
Common Object File Format – in 32-bit programming, a format for executable and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation of COFF is derived from the UNIX specification for COFF, but includes additional headers for compatibility with the MS-DOS and 16-bit Windows operating systems. The Microsoft version is also called the portable executable (PE) file format.
Component Object Model – an open architecture for cross-platform development of client/server applications supporting infrastructure for building, using, and evolving component software in a robust manner. COM is an object-based programming model designed to promote software interoperability. It allows two or more applications or components to easily cooperate with one another, even if they were written by different vendors at different times, in different programming languages, or if they are running on different machines running different operating systems. COM defines the interface, similar to an abstract base class, IUnknown, from which all COM-compatible classes are derived.
COM port
Communications Port – the logical address assigned by MS-DOS versions 3.3 and later, and Microsoft Windows, to each of the four standard serial ports on an IBM personal computer or an IBM PC-compatible computer.
common language runtime
The engine at the core of managed code execution. The runtime supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support.
Cathode Ray Tube the HMI technology used to create TV and computer monitor display devices involving the use of a custom shaped and sealed vacuum glass tube containing a matrix of coloured phosphors at the viewing end, which would emit light when struck by electrons fired from the other end of the tube and aimed using powerful electromagnets within the tube. The combined effect of the very many phosphors emitting light at very nearly the same time across the viewing screen formed a visual image for viewing by humans. The three phosphor colours found to be most practical were Red, Green and Blue, which when positioned very closely and combined in different intensities, produced the optical illusion of nearly any colour and intensity.
CRT TVs were totally self contained including power supply, CRT, electronic control circuitry, and TV signal decoder. When CRT monitors were created for computer displays, a higher resolution (than standard TV resolution of the day) was required in order to display finer detail when viewed close-up (as monitors were placed on the desktop directly in front of the human—not viewed from across the room as TVs typically are). The TV tuner and circuitry was removed, a higher resolution CRT was used, and the higher resolution RGB signal was sourced externally from the computer graphics card. The analog RGB signal was sent directly between the computer and the monitor using a special RGB cable, and connected directly to the analog monitor display circuitry with no tuning or signal processing required by the monitor.
CRT display devices cannot be connected to signal sources using AV cables as they do not contain video interfaces or video control circuitry hardware.

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Digital Audio Tape a magnetic tape used to store data in a digital format media, most often used for digital audio recordings.
The raw (uninterpreted) symbols or facts suitable for processing by computer or transmission over a communication medium, often in the form of bits grouped into bytes representing ASCII text characters arranged into strings. When interpreted with meaning, produces information.
Design-time functionality refers to the display and behaviour of a component or control in a visual designer. Design-time tasks include showing a component or control in a tool box, displaying a component on a design surface, showing properties and events in a property browser, automatically generating code, and so on. Compare with run-time.
In the context of computing, networks and communications, a device is a machine or piece of hardware serving a particular purpose. For instance: a PLC, a computer, a communications port, a storage disk drive.
The form of binary data comprised of ones and zeros, represented in a signal as a single bit being either on or off. Compare with analog.
The HMI device creating an emission of light to form a visual image upon its display surface for human interaction. Analog displays use CRT technology, whilst digital displays use PDP (plasma) and LCD display technologies.
The practice of loading an assembly without specifying a domain in which the assembly is to run. Loading an assembly in a domain-neutral manner enables the assembly's code and associated run-time data structures to be shared among all application domains within a process.
Disc Operating System – the operating system originally designed for IBM PCs to allow for file read/write operations of data and programs to and from disk for computers to compute. See OS.
Digital Video Interface – is a new form of video interface technology made to maximize the quality of flat panel LCD monitors and high-end video graphics cards. It is a replacement for the P&D (Plug & Display) standard, and a step up from the older DFP (Digital-only Flat Panel) format. DVI is becoming increasingly popular with video card manufacturers, and most cards purchased include both VGA and DVI output ports.
There are three types of DVI connections:
1. DVI-A (Analog)
2. DVI-D (Digital)
3. DVI-I (Integrated Analog and Digital)
DVI digital and analog formats are non-interchangeable. This means that a DVI-D (digital) cable will not work on an analog system, nor a DVI-A (analog) on a digital system. Make sure that you know which format each device can support before you purchase any DVI cables. Only equipment with a DVI port labeled 'DVI-I' will accept both a DVI-D or DVI-A source signal (but not both at the same time, and not from one to the other).
DVI-A (Analog) format is used to carry an analog DVI signal to an analog display, such as a CRT monitor or an HDTV equipped with a DVI-A or DVI-I input. This allows for connectivity between analog video source devices and compatible digital display devices using analog signals. DVI-A transmits a higher quality picture than standard VGA. Compare with DVI-D and DVI-I.
DVI-D (Digital) format is used to carry a digital DVI signal to a digital display, for direct digital connection between source video (namely, video cards) and digital LCD (or rare CRT) monitors. This provides a faster, higher-quality image than with analog (DVI-A), due to the nature of the digital format. All video cards initially produce a digital video signal, which is converted into analog at the VGA output. The analog signal travels to the monitor and is re-converted back into a digital signal. DVI-D eliminates the analog conversion process and improves the connection between source and display.
DVI-I format is an integrated cable which is capable of transmitting either a digital-to-digital signal or an analog-to-analog signal, but it will not convert signals from digital-to-analog or analog-to-digital between devices.

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executable file
A file in portable executable (PE) file format that can be loaded into memory and executed by the operating system loader. It can be either an .exe or a .dll file. In the .NET context, a PE file must be translated by the common language runtime into native code before it can be executed by the operating system.
Any combination of operators, constants, literal values, functions, names of columns, controls, and properties that result in a single value.
Extensible Markup Language
See definition for XML.

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A temporary property of a user interface object, such as a window, view, dialog box, or button, that permits the object to receive keyboard input from the user.
See definition for .NET Framework.
File Transfer Protocol – the protocol used for copying files to and from remote computer systems on a network using a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), such as the Internet. This protocol also allows users to use FTP commands to work with files, such as listing files and directories on the remote system.
file system
In an operating system, the overall structure in which files are named, stored, and organized. A file system consists of files, directories, and the information needed to locate and access these items. The term can also refer to the portion of an operating system that translates requests for file operations from an application into low-level, sector-oriented tasks that can be understood by the drivers controlling the disk drives.

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Garbage Collection – The process of transitively tracing through all pointers in the .NET environment to actively used objects to locate all objects that can be referenced and then arranging to reuse any heap memory that was not found during this trace. The runtime garbage collector also arranges to compact the memory that is in use to reduce the working space needed for the heap.
Globally Unique IDentifier – a 128-bit system-generated identifier that is guaranteed to be unique across all network systems for all time. See Network Identifier.

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High Definition a video display resolution of 1080-line (1920x1080) or 720-line (1280x720) in 16:9 aspect ratio.
Hard Disk Drive – the mechanical magnetic disk drive media used to store digital data. (Note the spelling using "k" in 'disk', as apposed to 'disc' used to describe optical media.) 
A portion of memory reserved for a program to use for the temporary storage of data structures whose existence or size cannot be determined until the program is running.
Human Machine Interface – the physical means of interaction between humans and machines allowing for machines to request input from humans, and for humans to input an instruction, selection or command; also the use of hardware items such as buttons, keyboards, mice, indicator lights, display screens, disk drives, remote controls, and software items such as online forms, touch screen buttons, notification windows, etc. for humans to interact with.
HyperText Markup Language – a subset of SGML used to create hypertext documents that are portable from one platform to another. HTML files are simple ASCII text files with codes embedded (indicated by markup tags) to indicate formatting and hypertext links. The formatting language used for documents on the World Wide Web. For a complete description of tags, attributes, and extensions, see the HTML specification:
HyperText Transfer Protocol – the client/server protocol used to access information on the Web.

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The interpretation of data in some meaningful way. Compare with knowledge.
intermediate language
See definition for Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL).
Input/Output – method of data communication with a device, usually through a serial port or parallel port, and to a communication protocol standard.
A programming interface is a related group of function calls. These function calls are also referred to as "methods" or "member functions." All interfaces are named. By convention, interfaces are given a name starting with capital "I", such as IUnknown. This given name has symbolic meaning to source-level programming tools. Each interface is also assigned an interface identifier (IID). The IID is a system-generated 128-bit globally unique identified (GUID) that unambiguously identifies the interface. The system uses this GUID at runtime to uniquely identify the interface.
Interface IDentifier – a system-generated 128-bit globally unique identifier (GUID) that unambiguously identifies an interface. The system uses the GUID to uniquely identify an interface at runtime.
ISO/OSI model
A layered architecture that standardizes levels of service and types of interaction for computers exchanging data through a communications network. The ISO/OSI model separates computer-to-computer communications into seven layers.

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Just In Time – a phrase that describes an action that is taken only when it becomes necessary, such as just-in-time compilation or just-in-time object activation.
JIT compilation
The compilation that converts Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) into machine code at the point when the code is required at run time.

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The interpretation of information with purpose to produce ideas, thoughts, and beliefs, through the intelligent use of comparisons, consequences, connections, and conversations.

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Local Area Network – a group of computers and other devices dispersed over a relatively limited area and connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other device on the network. LANs commonly include microcomputers and shared resources such as laser printers and large hard disks. The devices on a LAN are known as nodes, and the nodes are connected by cables through which messages are transmitted.
Liquid Crystal Display – the technology used to control the passage of light through an electronic matrix display. See monitor. Compare with CRT.
The time period that begins when an object is allocated in memory and ends when the garbage collector deletes the object from memory.

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managed code
Code that runs under a "contract of cooperation" with the runtime. Managed code must supply the metadata necessary for the runtime to provide services such as memory management, cross-language integration, code access security, and automatic lifetime control of objects. All code based on Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) executes as managed code.
markup tags
SGML, XML & HTML are ASCII text files consisting of markup tags surrounded by angle brackets (<>), interspersed with text. A markup tag may have one or more attributes associated with it. These attributes modify the layout or behaviour of the tag, or provide additional information about the source or extent of a given element of the document. For example, a typical HTML document contains the paired HTML markup tags <HTML><HEAD> ... </HEAD><BODY> ... </BODY></HTML>, which define the start and end of the document, it's header information, and the body content.
The physical device used to store data. Digital storage media includes CD, DAT, DVD, floppy disk, HDD, and memory sticks, whereas analog storage media includes record and tape. Magnetic storage is used on tapes (analog and digital), floppy disks, and hard disk drives (both spelt with a "k" in 'disk'), whereas optical storage is used on compact discs and Digital Versatile Discs (both spelt with a "c" in 'disc'). Memory sticks store their data in microchip (electronic) memory.
In electronic devices, memory refers to the storage of digital electronic data in a silicon-based microchip. Temporary storage is achieved using RAM chips, and permanent storage is achieved using ROM chips. Memory is referenced using addressing and is accessed using the underlying BIOS.
memory stick
The general group name describing any type of a removable and portable storage devices using flash memory chip technology or similar in an ultra-thin design for the storage and transfer of digital data between compatible devices. Typical examples for computer usage are fitted with USB plugs, whilst newer thinner versions for digital still cameras and mobile phones use ... [COL: list types here].
Data used to describe other data. For example, in HTML, a metadata tag holds the description of the HTML topic, and is used by search engines to categorize and list the content of the topic in the search engine's database.
In the Microsoft.NET environment, metadata is information that describes every element managed by the runtime: an assembly, loadable file, type, method, and so on. This can include information required for debugging and garbage collection, as well as security attributes, marshalling data, extended class and member definitions, version binding, and other information required by the runtime.
A loadable unit, which can contain type declarations and type implementations. The module contains enough information to enable the runtime to locate all implementation parts when the module is loaded. The format for modules is an extension of the Windows portable executable (PE) file format. When deployed, a module is always contained in an assembly.
Typically, a monitor is the sole and primary display device for a PC. Monitors have traditionally been constructed using analog CRT technology, however, have recently been constructed using digital PDP (plasma) and LCD display technologies.
Computer monitors are designed for RGB signals. When using a display device as a computer monitor, the image will always look best when displayed using the RGB source input and with the resolution output of the computer graphic card set to the resolution of the display device. 
Microsoft Intermediate Language – a language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a JIT compiler. The runtime includes several JIT compilers for converting MSIL to native code.

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A logical naming scheme for grouping related types. For example, the .NET Framework uses a hierarchical naming scheme for grouping types into logical categories of related functionality, such as ASP.NET application framework, or remoting functionality. Design tools can use namespaces to make it easier for developers to browse and reference types in their code. The concept of a namespace is orthogonal to that of an assembly: a single assembly can contain types whose hierarchical names have different namespace roots, and a logical namespace root can span multiple assemblies. In the .NET Framework, a namespace is a logical design-time naming convenience, whereas an assembly establishes the name scope for types at run time.
native code
Code that has been compiled to processor-specific machine code.
(pronounced dot NET) Microsoft's 32-bit based software development solution for the next generation of micro-processing hardware to replace the previous 16-bit based generation dating from the last century. Designed to (seamlessly) integrate network and web based resources and data with a faster (and more powerful) development and operating environment. See .NET Framework
.NET data provider
A component of ADO.NET that provides access to data from a relational database.
.NET Framework
A platform for building, deploying, and running Web Services and applications. It provides a highly productive, standards-based, multi-language environment for integrating existing investments with next generation applications and services, as well as the agility to solve the challenges of deployment and operation of Internet-scale applications. The .NET Framework consists of three main parts: the common language runtime, a hierarchical set of unified class libraries, and a componentized version of ASP called ASP.NET.
.NET Framework class library
A CLS-compliant library of classes, interfaces, and value types. This library provides access to system functionality and is designed to be the foundation on which .NET applications, components, and controls are built.
The hardware and software used in combination to provide interconnection and communication between multiple and separate devices connected together sharing the common connectivity medium. See serial communications, packet, protocol, and the ISO/OSI model.
network identifier
An identifier for systems located on the same physical network.
National Television System Committee – an analog television system standard which displays in a 4:3 aspect ratio, using 525 horizontal scan lines at 60Hz interlaced. Every second line is refreshed per cyclealternatingto present a complete screen (frame) refresh every two (60 Hz) cycles, resulting in a frame rate of 30Hz (frames per second). NTSC is used in Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Philippines, Pacific Islands, Canada, the United States, Mexico, the Caribbean and the Americas. NTSC uses FM audio. Compare with PAL.

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Operating System – the software command set which performs basic data connectivity, communication, and control between electronic devices such as microprocessors, memory, disk drives, and data input and output devices.  Compare with DOS and .Net.

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A unit of information transmitted as a whole from one device to another on a network.
Phase Alternating Line – a television system standard which displays in a 4:3 aspect ratio, using 625 horizontal scan lines at 50Hz interlaced. Every second line is refreshed per cyclealternatingto present a complete screen (frame) refresh every two (50 Hz) cycles, resulting in a frame rate of 25Hz (frames per second).  PAL is used in most countries which don't use NTSC or SECAM, including most of Europe, Asia, Africa, Oceania, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Compare with NTSC.
One of the separate areas in a split window, or a rectangular area of the status bar that can be used to display information.
parallel communications
A communications method which simultaneously transmits several bits of data. Compare with serial communications.
parallel cable
A cable that connects devices using a parallel port to transfer data between the devices.
parallel port
The input/output connector for a parallel interface device. Compare with serial port.
1. In communications, a link between two nodes in a network.
2. A route through a structured collection of information, as in a database, an application, or files stored on disk.
3. In programming, the sequence of instructions that a computer carries out in executing a routine.
4. In file storage, the route followed by the operating system in finding, sorting, and retrieving files on a disk.
5. In graphics, an accumulation of line segments or curves to be filled or overwritten with text.
Personal Computer – the original design principle of IBM computers (of mainframe history) for a small desktop sized (personal) computer encompassing the principle of individual component construction using (common) standards for design function and interconnectivity. This future encompassing concept allowed for the subsequent development of third party (not IBM) PC hardware and software. This also directly led to the establishment and subsequent success of Microsoft (who entered into an initial software OS supply agreement with all IBM PCs).
Plasma Display Panel a
PE file
portable executable – the file format used for executable programs as well as files to be linked together to form executable programs. The Microsoft implementation of the Common Object File Format (COFF).
Any of the devices on a layered communications network that operate on the same protocol level. See ISO/OSI model.
permission class
A class that defines access to a resource or defines an identity by supporting authorization checks.
permission object
An instance of a permission class that represents access rights to resources or identity. A permission object can be used to specify a request, demand, or a grant of permission.
A program for testing whether a particular computer is connected to the network by sending a data packet to its Internet Protocol (IP) address and waiting for a response.
1. A specific implementation of a Windows operating system on a target device. A platform consists of an operating system image, an OEM adaptation layer, and device drivers.
2. In everyday usage, the type of computer or operating system being used.
Programmable Logic Controller – I/O controlling device connected to the field devices (actuators) of the plant and with the ability to send instructions e.g. regulate a motor, open or close a valve, etc.
The series of operations performed in the making or treatment of a product. Process control systems are used to monitor and control the process. See SCADA and SPC.
programming interface
See interface.
A named attribute of an object. Properties define object characteristics, such as size and name, or the state of an object, such as enabled or disabled.
A formal set of rules and formats that computers use to communicate with each another. FTP and HTTP are two examples of protocols used to transfer files between computers connected to the Internet.
protocol stack
Collectively, the layers of communications software in the ISO/OSI model.

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A specific request or set of instructions for retrieving, modifying, inserting, or deleting data in a database. See Structured Query Language (SQL).

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Random Access Memory – silicon based microchips used to temporarily store data which retain the data placed in them whilst-so-ever an external power source is applied to the chip. Compare with ROM.
1. (noun) The vinyl platter media used to mechanically store audio soundwaves in one continuous serial spiralling groove which wound from the outer edge to the inner core across both of the broad flat sides of the platter. 
2. (verb) To make a recording (copy) of data (on any recordable media).
reference type
A data type that is stored as a reference to the value's location. The value of a reference type is the location of the sequence of bits that represent the type's data. Reference types can be self-describing types, pointer types, or interface types.
regular expression
A concise and flexible notation for finding and replacing patterns of text. The notation comprises two basic character types: literal (normal) text characters, which indicate text that must exist in the target string, and meta-characters, which indicate the text that can vary in the target string. You can use regular expressions to quickly parse large amounts of text to find specific character patterns; extract, edit, replace, or delete text substrings; or to add the extracted strings to a collection in order to generate a report.
The process of communication between different operating system processes, regardless of whether they are on the same computer. The .NET remoting system is an architecture designed to simplify communication between objects living in different application domains, whether on the same computer or not, and between different contexts, whether in the same application domain or not.
requested permissions
Optionally specified permissions in an assembly that represent the minimum required, optionally desired, and always refused permissions for all code in the assembly. If there is no request, the code is granted the maximum that policy allows.
Any non-executable data that is logically deployed with an application. A resource might be displayed in an application as error messages or as part of the user interface. Resources can contain data in a number of forms, including strings, images, and persisted objects.
Red-Green-Blue – the colour combination of light emitting devices like monitors used to create any display colour through varying the intensity of each red, green, or blue element. Can be used to create white colour when all three are used at their maximum value. RGB is also used to describe the type of connection between computers and their display devices using an RGB data cable which carries the signal strength of each individual RGB element in the image signal. RGB cables are commonly terminated in a 15 or 9 pin D-Sub type connector. The signal is frequency modulated.
Read Only Memory silicon based microchips used to permanently store data which retain the data placed in them even after an external power source to the chip has been removed. Compare with ROM.
See definition for common language runtime. Compare with design-time.
runtime host
The environment, such as ASP.NET, Internet Explorer, or the Windows shell, in which the runtime is typically started and managed. Runtime hosts create application domains in which to run managed code on behalf of the user.

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Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition – an industry-standard term that is used to describe any system or tool that monitors and collects data for a production or manufacturing process. SCADA systems provide a high level of supervision enabling operators to monitor activities of the production process and influence them accordingly, to maximise production levels.
A description of the organisation or structure of a data source. In a SCADA data source, the term schema refers to the list of Tags, Alarms and Trends that the database contains. In a relational database it refers to a list of tables and views and their structure.
serial communications
A communications method which transmits data one bit at a time. Compare with parallel communications.
serial cable
A cable that connects to a serial port. It is used to transfer information between two devices.
serial port
An input/output location (channel) that sends and receives data to and from a computer or a communications device one bit at a time. Serial ports are used for serial data communication and as interfaces to peripheral devices, such as mouse devices printers, PLCs, etc. Compare with parallel port.
1. On a local area network (LAN), a computer running administrative software that controls access to the network and its resources, such as printers and disk drives, and provides resources to computers functioning as workstations on the network.
2. An application that responds to requests from another application or task. See also client.
A Windows service is a program, routine, or process that performs a specific system function to support other programs, particularly low-level system operations. A network service is an application that makes data or operations available to network clients. Services are generally non-interactive (with no user interface) and run in the background. Typically, Windows services are started automatically with the start-up of the operating system.
Standard Generalized Markup Language – an information-management standard adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1986 as a means of providing platform-independent and application-independent documents that retain formatting, indexing, and linked information. SGML provides a grammar-like mechanism for users to define the structure of their documents and the tags they will use to denote the structure in individual documents. Both XML and HTML are derived from SGML.
Simple Object Access Protocol – a simple, XML-based protocol for exchanging structured and type information on the Web. The protocol contains no application or transport semantics, which makes it highly modular and extensible.
Statistical Process Control – is a set of mathematical tools used to determine and monitor the level of statistical control demonstrated by your production process.
SPC will show the capability of the process to:
- Produce within tolerance i.e. is the variability of the product greater than the range between specification limits?
- Produce within specification i.e. does the distribution of the product extend beyond either or both of the specification limits and by what percentage of production?
Structured Query Language – an industry-standard language used to create databases intended for query-based record retrieval.
SQL Server
A customisable file server dedicated to handling SQL queries. Mainly used as a common access point for multiple clients to funnel data to and from an SQL database.
Short for Super-Video, a technology for transmitting video signals over a cable by dividing the video information into two separate signals: one for color (chrominance), and the other for brightness (luminance). When sent to an analog television, this produces sharper images than composite video , where the video information is transmitted as a single signal over one wire. This is because analog televisions are designed to display separate Luminance (Y) and Chrominance (C) signals. (The terms Y/C video and S-Video are the same.)
To use S-Video, the device sending the signals must have an S-Video output socket, and the device receiving the signals must have an S-Video input socket. Then you use a special S-Video cable to connect the two devices.

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A repository for information in a relational database in a pre-defined structure.
A protocol developed by the United States Department of Defense for communications between computers. It is built into the UNIX system and has become the de facto standard for data transmission over networks, including the Internet. TCP and IP are transport and address protocols; TCP is used to establish a connection for data transmission, and IP defines the method for sending the data in packets.
A hierarchical display of labelled items. The top item in the hierarchy is called the root. If an item has other items below it in the hierarchy, it is also referred to as a parent. Items subordinate to parents are called children. Child items, when displayed, are indented below their parent item. The hierarchy may be expanded or collapsed at any level to display or hide child items.

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Uniform Resource Locator The address of a resource on the Internet. URL syntax is in the form protocol://host/localinfo, where protocol specifies the means of returning the object, such as Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Host specifies the remote location where the object resides, and localinfo is a stringoften a file namepassed to the protocol handler at the remote location.
The system of naming files among computers on a network so that a file on a given computer will have the same path when it is accessed from any of the other computers on the network. For example, if the directory c:\path1\path2\...pathn on computer server is shared under the name pathdirs, a user on another computer would open \\servern\pathdirs\filename.ext to access the file c:\path1\path2\...pathn\filename.ext on server.

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A part of the compilation process in which code is checked for conformance to a specific set of rules defined to allow proof of certain security requirements. The runtime can verify Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL).
See also S-Video.
A virtual table generated by a query whose definition is stored in the database. For example, a view might be defined as containing three out of five available columns in a table, created to limit access to certain information. Views can be treated as tables for most database operations, including Select queries, and under some circumstances, Update, Insert, and Delete queries. Any operations performed on views actually affect the data in the table or tables on which the view is based.

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Extensible Markup Language a subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) that is optimized for delivery over the Web. XML provides a uniform method for describing and exchanging structured data that is independent of applications or vendors.

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Note Note

Many of these definitions were sourced from Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN)—with thanks—and have been provided here for your convenience.

To be added:

LOGON:                        Adding wood to make the Barbie hotter.
LOG  OFF:                     Not adding any more wood to the Barbie.
MONITOR:                    Keeping an eye on the Barbie.
DOWNLOAD:               Getting the firewood off the Ute.
HARD DRIVE:               Making the trip back home without any cold tinnies.
KEYBOARD:                Where you hang the Ute keys.
WINDOW:                    What you shut when the weather's cold.
SCREEN:                       What you shut in the mozzie season.
BYTE:                            What mozzies do.
MEGABYTE:                 What Townsville mozzies do.
CHIP:                             A bar snack.
MICROCHIP:               What's left in the bag after you've eaten the chips.
MODEM:                      What you did to the lawns.
LAPTOP:                      Where the cat sleeps.
SOFTWARE:                Plastic knives & forks you get at Red Rooster.
HARDWARE:               Stainless steel knives & forks - from K-Mart.
MOUSE:                       The small rodent that eats the grain in the shed.
MAINFRAME:             What hold's the shed up.
WEB:                            What spiders make.
WEBSITE:                    Usually in the shed or under the verandah.
SEARCH ENGINE:     What you do when the Ute won't go.
CURSOR:                    What you say when the Ute won't go.
YAHOO:                      What you say when the Ute does go.
UPGRADE:                  A steep hill.
SERVER:                     The person at the pub who brings out the counter lunch.
MAIL SERVER:          The bloke at the pub who brings out the counter lunch.
USER:                         The neighbour who keeps borrowing things.
NETWORK:               What you do when you need to repair the fishing net.
INTERNET:                Where you want the fish to go.
NETSCAPE:               What the fish do when they discover the hole in the net.
ONLINE:                    Where you hang the washing.
OFFLINE:                  Where the washing end's up when the pegs aren't strong enough.

1. Coffee (n.), the person upon whom one coughs.

2. Flabbergasted (adj.), appalled over how much weight you have gained.

3. Abdicate (v.), to give up all hope of ever having a flat stomach.

4. Esplanade (v.), to attempt an explanation while drunk.

5. Willy-nilly (adj.), impotent.

6. Negligent (adj.), describes a condition in which you absentmindedly answer the door in your nightgown.

7. Lymph (v.), to walk with a lithp.

8. Gargoyle (n.), olive-flavored mouthwash.

9. Flatulence (n.) emergency vehicle that picks you up after you are run over by a steamroller.

10. Balderdash (n.), a rapidly receding hairline.

11. Testicle (n.), a humorous question on an exam.

12. Rectitude (n.), the formal, dignified bearing adopted by proctologists.

13. Pokemon (n), a Rastafarian proctologist.

14. Oyster (n.), a person who sprinkles his conversation with Yiddishisms.

15. Frisbeetarianism (n.), The belief that, when you die, your Soul flies up onto the roof and gets stuck there.

16. Circumvent (n.), an opening in the front of boxer shorts worn by Jewish Men.

Jewish Men.


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See Also

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